It is impossible to determine exactly how much a living thing is superior to another in terms of intelligence; IQ tests for animals have not yet been invented.
However, you can make a reliable list of the smartest animals while not asserting that some are smarter and some are more stupid.
So, let’s list all the animals in the top ten.
The primate family includes humans and chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, baboons, gibbons, and monkeys, which, apart from humans, occupy the top six places in biologists Edward Wilson’s list of the ten smartest animals; in the first place – chimpanzees.
Primates have large, complex brains; they can build complex cultures, and to some extent, can control their environment. They can communicate with animals of their kind and have developed certain language skills.
The elephant is the largest land mammal on our planet! The largest elephant ever to live on Earth was recorded in Angola in 1956. This male weighed about 12,000 kg and reached 4.2 m in height, a meter higher than the average African elephant. The smallest elephants, the size of a cow or a large pig, lived in the prehistoric period on the island of Crete.
Elephants are the royal symbol of Asian culture and are known for their excellent memory and high intelligence. They are even equated with whales and hominids (belonging to the great ape family).
Aristotle once said that the elephant is “an animal that surpasses all others in wit and intelligence.” Recent discoveries have shown that they can communicate with each other over long distances, producing a dull rumble that travels across the ground faster than sound through air.
Others receive messages through the delicate skin on the soles of their feet and trunks. It is believed that this is how the groups call on each other for help.
Dolphins are found in many seas and oceans of the world, including the Black Sea.
Dolphins live up to 75 years, more often about 50, in captivity, usually about 30. With the help of its 88 teeth, the Black Sea dolphin eats about 30 kg. fish per day; the weight of dolphins is up to 500 kg. The body temperature of a dolphin is the same as that of a person, 36.6 degrees. The dolphin gestation period is about 12 months. The female dolphin usually brings one cub 50-60 cm long and carefully guards it for some time.
There is an opinion that the most intelligent animals are dolphins. When dolphins began to be studied and trained in the middle of the last century, the first results of this work seemed so unusual, and even amazing (much talked about, wrote and made films about) that gradually a legend about the unusually high intelligence of dolphins was formed; it was often possible to hear that they were no more stupid than a person, only their mind was different.
The brain of an adult dolphin weighs about 1700 grams, and that of a person – 1400. A dolphin has twice as many convolutions in the cerebral cortex. At the same time, there are relatively few neurons in a cubic millimeter of its substance (less than in the brain of primates). Research on the behavior and physiology of the brain of dolphins is highly controversial.
Some put their learning ability roughly on the level of a dog and show that dolphins are very far from chimpanzees. Studies of dolphins’ communication methods, on the contrary, push to the conclusion that we have not yet come close to understanding this form of life in natural conditions, and it is simply incorrect to compare the level of intelligence of dolphins and chimpanzees.
One property of the dolphin brain is unique: it never really sleeps – alternately – either the left or the right hemispheres of the brain. The dolphin needs to surface from time to time to breathe. At night, the waking halves of the brain take turns responsible for this. British intelligence is known to have used dolphins as saboteurs during the war.
The dog is an omnivorous canine mammal, domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Dogs can understand 250 words and gestures, count to five, and perform simple mathematical operations.
A dog is man’s best friend, always there, always giving his paw and wagging his tail. It is worth mentioning that the smartest dog breed is the poodle.
Their intelligence is difficult to study because cats are too independent and only participate in experiments as long as they are in the mood. But this independence in itself may be a sign of remarkable intelligence.
Cats have twice as many neurons in their cerebral cortex as dogs, experts say. This means that they have a greater capacity for information processing and storage. In addition, the cat’s famous curiosity can attest to a high level of intelligence.
Cats are so smart that they seem to share intelligence with their owners. At least researchers from the University of Bristol (England)discovered that cat owners are more likely to have an academic degree or high professional qualifications than dog lovers. Although, of course, this statistical pattern has other, deeper, and not fully understood reasons. Or maybe it’s just a coincidence.
Mice and rats, previously used only as experimental animals, are now gaining more and more popularity as pets, especially among young people. Therefore, these animals are increasingly becoming patients in veterinary clinics.
Rats are very intelligent animals (among the 10 most intelligent animals); their lifespan is 2.5-3 years.
You should never harm a rat or its offspring. They are vindictive. Their urine may contain certain elements that can harm a person. But only if it stands out when the rat takes revenge. Rats catch waves. This can be observed when they are focused on looking at one point, and their head moves in different directions (left, right).) Rats are very playful; they love to frolic with their owner. They are very active, but this usually manifests itself more at night.
A raven is a bird genius, the smartest bird of all. A virtuoso at stealing, stealing everything bad and not so bad. Ravens are not only petty thieves but also nestling thieves. They often gather in flocks to get hold of their prey, which is inaccessible to each bird individually. For example, one raven teases a poor bird, while another raven snatches an egg right from under it, or if the birds are weak, the kidnapper throws them out of the nest.
The raven is very familiar with gravity. When it fails to break a shell or a nut with its beak, it lifts into the sky and throws them onto a hard surface (stone, asphalt). This also means that the feathered genius is well versed in the properties of the ground, can distinguish soft sand from stone.
In addition, the raven can count to five, but individuals of this species have problems with further counting. It builds nests in spring; that’s when they drag there everything that shines. You can find medallions, gilded items, copper wire there. There was a case where a bird genius furnished his dwelling with a manuscript of a dissertation. Raven make nests of dry twigs, wool, grass, rags, and both males and females take part in this responsible undertaking. Usually, a raven’s clutch contains four to five eggs, coloured bluish-green.
Ravens chicks easily become tame and increase their intelligence when interacting with humans. They can take off their guest’s hats and bring a fork or spoon to the table. The owner of a tame raven needs to hide valuables very well, as it is almost impossible to discourage this bird from stealing.
Squirrels can be tamed for hand feeding. Since they are adapted to stash surplus food, they will take from you as much as you offer. If a person begins to feed a squirrel, it will return to him for a new portion in a day. Squirrels living in parks and gardens within the city have long learned that humans are a source of food.
These animals are smarter than most people think. Scientists in the laboratory have tried to take food from squirrels. And, I must say, they faced desperate resistance from the tailed beasts. This characterizes squirrels as animals that can stand up for themselves and their “property.” Unfortunately, this valuable quality is not inherent in all “reasonable people.”
Pigs are also among the smartest animals. They easily get used to a certain daily routine, making it much easier to care for them.
Like many other animal species, pigs have a great time sense. This is especially evident before feeding: a few minutes before it, the animals begin to worry and look towards the appearance of the feed dispenser. Paradoxically, the “intelligence” of these animals sometimes serves as a brake on the successful development of pig breeding. Farm animals do not like deviations from the routine.
Even clapping their hands causes an instant reaction of piglets throughout the pigsty – animals immediately refuse to feed, become alert, and seem to freeze in anticipation of something unknown and terrible. After 30 – 40 seconds, only some animals begin to engage in the same activity, and most of them experience anxiety for another 2 – 3 minutes.
The octopus leads a bottom life, living among stones, rocks, and algae. In the Far East, the favourite shelter of its fry is the empty shells of the seaside scallop. During the day, it is less active than at night; therefore, it is considered a nocturnal animal. Shy, when a diver or a scuba diver approaches, it usually hides under stones. It keeps its dwelling clean: Octopus sweeps it with a stream of water from a funnel, leaves the scraps outside in a garbage heap.
It drags into the hole everything it finds at the bottom: the main thing is that the entrance is narrow, and inside it is wide. It even lives in boxes, cans, tires, and rubber boots. When approaching enemies, it flees, hiding in crevices of rocks and under stones. Octopuses have a protective device – autotomy: a tentacle grabbed by an enemy can break off due to a strong contraction of muscles, which in this case tear themselves apart.
The smartest among all invertebrates: amenable to training, has a good memory, distinguishes geometric shapes – distinguishes a small square from a larger one, a rectangle placed vertically from a rectangle placed horizontally, a circle from a square, a rhombus form a triangle. It gets to know people, gets used to those who feed them. If you spend enough time with the octopus, it becomes tame. It hibernates in deeper waters, and in summer, migrates to shallow waters.
In the early 19th century, a ship with expensive Korean porcelain sank off the coast of Japan. All the cargo was at the bottom and such a depth that the divers could not reach it. Almost a hundred years later, a fisherman came up with the idea of using octopuses to lift porcelain from the bottom. Ropes were tied to the octopuses and lowered. After a short period, when the octopus took refuge in one of the vases, they pulled the rope. The octopus tenaciously grasped at what he considered his refuge, and together with the load, he was lifted.