How Sumerians lived, invented wheels, laws, taxes, and writing, and where they disappeared to

The Sumerian peoples are considered to be the oldest and possibly the first highly developed civilization on Earth. Although there was also Lemuria. Strangely, the whole world became aware of their existence only after the XIX century.

To mankind, Sumerians made many discoveries, for example, the wheel and bricks, writing and money, taxes and laws. They built cities, conducted high-level operations, and worshipped their gods. Despite such high achievements, this civilization simply disappeared from the face of the Earth without a trace.

Where and when did the Sumerians appear

The ancient civilization of the Sumerians has recently been talked about often. After all, they invented a large number of things that most people use today. Now the Sumerians are mentioned as a great civilization of the Middle East, which lived in the middle of the III millennium BC.

Although before the XIX century about these people, nothing was known. There is a hypothesis that it was the Sumerians who were the first developed nation in the world. Although the question is debatable.

If you take myths and legends from around the world, many of them talk about the mysterious Lemuria. This highly developed civilization of humanoid apes lived in the Indian Ocean area many millions of years ago.

The Sumerians supposedly lived in the south of Mesopotamia (the territory of the valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers). Historians claim that they settled in the territory where the modern state of Iraq is now located. These ancient people were called “black-headed”.

The longer the skirt was, the richer the Sumerian
The longer the skirt was, the richer the Sumerian

Interestingly, these people possessed valuable knowledge in the field of astronomy and mathematics. Their year was divided into 12 months and 4 seasons. They knew about seconds, minutes and hours, about the zodiac signs, and knew how to measure angles.

Their medicine, in particular surgery, psychotherapy and herbal medicine, was top notch. Also, the Sumerians are considered the founders of the judiciary. Their legislative acts only contributed to the development of legal relations throughout the territory of the Ancient World.

Who were the first Sumerians is still not fully understood. It is known that these ancient people built cities such as Babylon, Nineveh and Uruk. During excavations, archaeologists have found a large number of documents that date back to the 3rd millennium BC. This confirmed that Sumerian kings really lived in Mesopotamia and were people who achieved a lot. It even described how entire cities and dynasties developed and fell into decay over time.

Unusual facts about the life and achievements of the Sumerian people

Scientists suggest that the Sumerians were short and robust. Mostly they were brown-eyed with dark hair color. However, in ancient Sumerian statues, the eyes were always blue. Most likely, this is how these people emphasized their connection with the deities.

Agriculture was the main occupation of Sumerians.
Agriculture was the main occupation of Sumerians.

The Sumerian people dressed exquisitely and beautifully. The main clothing was a skirt and a tunic, which differed between women and men. Many clothes were sewn from wool, and the woven fabric was dyed in different colors. The richer a person was, the longer his skirt. To prevent the clothes from falling and holding, they were fixed with a belt.

Among women’s outfits, fringes were found made from bundles of wool or thin leather straps. The Sumerians were very sensitive to personal hygiene and clean clothes. They were the first to invent soap, which was used for washing, cleaning and rituals. The nobility had their baths, while the poor took water from canals or rivers. This nation even used cosmetics and created unusual perfumes.

The main city of the Sumerian civilization was Uruk. More than 100 thousand people lived there. Thick walls protected the city, and all the surroundings and possible danger were clearly visible from the watchtowers.

The main type of work among the Sumerians was agriculture. There was not enough water for irrigation, so special pumps were used to irrigate the fields. Everything was done by hand. Later, they began to create a system of canals up to 20 meters wide, the source of water for which was the nearest rivers.

It is believed that the Sumerian people are the discoverers of many objects and ideas—for example, educational institutions, the wheel, first money, taxation, and the legal system. In addition, the Sumerians had their own written language and a high level of literacy, even among the common people.

The Sumerians invented the wheel
The Sumerians invented the wheel

Some historians believe that the Sumerian civilization became the founder of the first written language on Earth. The Sumerians also own the creation of the first factories for the production of textiles and bricks. This allowed them to build houses and provide many with housing.

Who did the Sumerians worship

The ancient people of the Sumerians had excellent logic and common sense, and certain knowledge that helped form a single system of the universe for them. Heaven and Earth are the main elements, and everything in between is life. All Sumerians worshipped several major gods. They were common to tribes and cities:

  • Enlil – chief over all, ruler of men and gods. He was called the god of Earth and air;
  • Anum – god of the sky;
  • Enki – god of the underground waters;
  • Ninhursag – goddess of the Earth and wife of Enki.

According to one of the most ancient legends, the goddess Nammu was considered the major gods’ creator and the foremother. In addition, some Sumerians worshipped other gods as well, for example, Ishtar, the goddess of love and sensual pleasures, or Eru, the god of disease.

Where did the civilization of the Sumerians disappear to?

These people were considered a highly developed civilization that could last a long time. However, it suddenly disappeared without a trace. For some time, scientists assumed that the unification of all caused the death of an entire people into the Akkadian Empire, headed by Sargon the Great. Thanks to a group of researchers led by Stacy Carolyn of Oxford University, another theory of the Sumerians’ disappearance has emerged.

The fact that scientists managed to find on the shores of the Gulf of Oman and the Red Sea evidence that the cause of the death of the Sumerians was a climatic disaster. Probably because of the strong dust storms and prolonged drought, the civilization was deprived of the most precious thing they had – water.

Other civilizations in ancient Egypt and India may have perished for the same reason. The stalactites, which were found near the city of Iran (Demavenda) in the cave of Gol-e-Zard, helped to unravel this mystery. But these formations have been forming for many thousands of years. The age of the stalactites in the Gol-e-Zard cave is about 5 thousand years.

The results of the analysis show that the stalactites consist of magnesium and calcium. It is most likely that a lot of sand was brought into the cave due to powerful dust storms. In addition, the annual rings on these cave creatures show the amount of water deposited as precipitation and fluctuating temperatures. The stalactites of the Gol-e-Zard cave showed a slowing of growth, which affected their shape. This is due to the long absence of precipitation and the drought. Many people are also concerned about another question.

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